VRICS banner Banner overlay
C-55135

Binocular vision

This visual recognition article tests the practitioner’s ability to identify a range of binocular vision anomalies.

Image A

Image A

01 The action of which pair of synergistic extraocular muscles is being tested in the motility position shown in the image?

a) Right superior rectus, left inferior oblique
b) Right superior rectus, left superior oblique
c) Right inferior oblique, left superior rectus
d) Right superior oblique, left superior rectus

02 Which cranial nerve innervates the pair of synergistic extraocular muscles being tested in the position shown?

a) Cranial nerve III – the oculomotor nerve
b) Cranial nerve IV – the trochlear nerve
c) Cranial nerve V – the trigeminal nerve
d) Cranial nerve VI – the abducens nerve

03 Which is the antagonistic muscle in the right eye for the motility position shown in the image?

a) Superior rectus
b) Inferior rectus
c) Superior oblique
d) Inferior oblique

Image B

Image B

04 If the right eye views the top bar and the left eye views the bottom bar, which type of disparity is shown in the image?

a) Eso disparity in the right eye
b) Exo disparity in the right eye
c) Eso disparity in the left eye
d) Exo disparity in the left eye

05 Which of the following statements regarding the test shown is false?

a) This test should be carried out with the room lights on
b) This test should be carried out in both the horizontal and vertical orientation
c) Practitioners should ensure that they determine the maximum amount of prism which neutralises the disparity
d) This test detects small misalignments within Panum’s area

06 The test shown can be used to measure which of the following?

a) Fixation disparity
b) The full extent of a heterophoria
c) The size of a heterotropia
d) All of these options

Image C

Image C

07 The image illustrates the results of a distance cover test. What is the correct diagnosis?

a) Right eye esophoria
b) Esotropia
c) Exophoria
d) Left eye exotropia

08 Which of the following would be the most appropriate distance target for the test shown if the patient’s visual acuity was R: 6/4 L: 6/5?

a) A single letter on the 6/4 line
b) The full 6/5 line
c) A single letter on the 6/6 line
d) A spotlight

09 Which type of movement could be mistaken for a heterotropia during the recovery phase (section 3)?

a) Abduction movement
b) Hering movement
c) Panum movement
d) Mallett movement

Image D

Image D

10 If the Maddox rod is placed in front of the patient’s right eye, which of the following is represented in Panel 1?

a) Exophoria
b) Esophoria
c) Orthophoria
d) Right eye suppression

11 If the Maddox rod is placed in front of the patient’s right eye, in which direction should the base of the prism be orientated to correct the misalignment represented in Panel 2?

a) Base in
b) Base out
c) Base up
d) Prism should not be used

12 If the Maddox rod is placed in front of the patient’s right eye, which of the following is represented in Panel 3?

a) Right hyperphoria
b) Left hyperphoria
c) Right hypophoria
d) Binocular hyperphoria

 

About the authors

Dr Andrew Logan PhD, MCOptom, DipTp(IP) is a lecturer at the School of Optometry and Vision Science at the University of Bradford. His teaching responsibilities mainly relate to ocular and systemic disease and ocular pharmacology. He also provides clinical training in a range of optometric skills from slit lamp examination to binocular vision assessment. Dr Logan is an independent prescribing optometrist and sits on the GOC’s education committee.

Dr Samantha Strong PhD, AFHEA is a post-doctoral researcher based in the School of Optometry and Vision Science at the University of Bradford. Dr Strong holds a BSc in Psychology from the University of York, and a PhD in Vision Science at the University of Bradford. Her research involves using neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and TMS to investigate perception of visual stimuli in the human brain.